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祝福词:英语宾语从句

在句子中起宾语作用的从句叫做宾语从句.宾语从句分为三类:动词的宾语从句,介词的宾语从句和形容词的宾语从句. 时态:
 
1·主句用一般现在时,从句可用任意时。
 
2·主句用过去时,从句用过去某个时态。 
 
3·主句用过去时,从句是真理时,只用一般现在时。
 
1.宾语从句的连接词 从属连词 连接宾语从句的从属连词主要有that,if,whether. that引导表示陈述句的宾语从句,而if和whether引导表示“是否”的宾语从句. He told that he would go to the college the next year 他告诉我他下一年上大学. I don’t know if there will be a bus any more. 我不知道是否还会有公交车. Nobody knew whether he could pass the exam. 没人知道他是否会通过考试. 连接代词 连接代词主要有who, whom ,whose ,what ,whoever ,whomever ,whosever, whatever, whichever等. 连接代词一般指疑问,但what, whatever除了指疑问外,也可以指陈述. Do you know who has won Red Alert game? 你知道谁赢了这一局红警游戏吗? I don’t know whom you should depend on. 我不知道你该依靠谁. The book will show you what the best CEOs know. 这本书会告诉你最好的执行总裁该了解些什么. Have you determined whichever you should buy,a Motorola or Nokia cell phone? 你决定好是买诺基亚还是摩托罗拉的电话了吗? 连接副词 连接副词主要有when,where,why,how,whenever,wherever,however等. He didn’t tell me when we should meet again. 他没有告诉我什么时候我们能再见面. Could you please tell me how you read the new panel? 你能展示给我怎么用这个新的操作盘吗? None of us knows where these new parts can be bought. 没有人知道这些的新的零件能在哪里买到. 
 
2.动词的宾语从句 大多数动词都可以带宾语从句 We all expect that they will win , for members of their team are stronger. 我们都预料他们会赢,因为他们的队员更强壮. He told us that they would help us though the whole work. 他告诉我们在整个工作中,他都会帮忙的. 部分“动词+副词”结构也可以带宾语从句 I have found out that all the tickets for the concert have been sold out. 我发现这场音乐会的所有票都卖光了. Can you work out how much we will spend during the trip? 你能计算出这次旅行我们将花费多少钱吗? 动词短语也可以带宾语从句 常见的这些词有: make sure确保 make up one’s mind下决心 keep in mind牢记 Make sure that there are no mistakes in your papers before you turn them in. 在上交试卷前确保没有任何错误. 可运用形式宾语it代替的宾语从句
 
①动词find,feel,consider,make,believe等后面有宾语补足语的时候,则需要用it做形式宾语而将that宾语从句后置. I think it necessary that we take plenty of hot water every day . 我认为每天多喝开水是有必要的. I feel it a pity that I haven’t been to the get-together. 我没去聚会,感觉非常遗憾. I have made it a rule that I keep diaries. 我每天写日记成了习惯. We all find it important that we (should) make a quick decision about this mater. 我们都认为对这件事马上做出决定很重要.
 
②有些动词带宾语从句时寻要在宾语与从句前加it 这类动词主要有:hate, take , owe, have, see to. I hate it when they with their mouths full of food. 我讨厌他们满嘴食物时说话. He will have it that our plan is really practical. 他会认为我们的计划确实可行. We take it that you will agree with us. 我们认为你会同意我们的. When you start the engine, you must see to it that car is in neutral. 开启发动机时, 一定要使汽车的离合器处于空挡位置. 
 
③若宾语从句是wh-类,则不可用it代替 We all consider what you said to be unbelievable. 我们都认为你所说的是不可信的. We discovered what we had learned to be valuable. 我们发现我们所学到的东西都是有用的.
 
3.介词的宾语从句 用wh-类的介词宾语从句 We are talking about whether we admit students into our club. 我们正在讨论是否让学生加入我们的俱乐部. The new book is about how Shenzhou 6 manned spaceship was sent up into space. 这本新书是关于神州6号载人航天飞船是如何升如太空的. 用that,if引导的介词宾语从句 有时候except,but,besides三个介词后可见到that引导的宾语从句 I know nothing about my new neighbor except that he used to work with a company. 对于我的新邻居我只知道他曾在一家公司上班,其他一无所知.
 
4.形容词的宾语从句 常用来引导宾语从句的形容词有: sure,certain,glad,please,happy,sorry,afraid,satisfied,surprised I am sure I will pass the exam. 我确信我会通过考试. I am sorry that I have troubled you so long. 很抱歉我这么长时间在打扰你. He is glad that Li Ming went to see him when he was ill. 他很高兴在他生病的时候李明能去看望他. 
 
5.if,whether在宾语从句中的区别 
 
①if和whether在作“是否”解时,引导宾语从句常放在动词know,ask,care,wonder,find out等之后,介词后一般不用if 
 
②少数动词,如:leave,put,discuss,doubt后的宾语从句常用whether. 
 
③whether后可以加or not,但是if不可以. 
 
④在不定式前只能用whether. 如: I can’t decide whether to stay. 我不能决定是否留下。 
 
⑤避免歧异时,我们常用whether而不用if.
 
6.哪些宾语从句不可以省略引导词that 当that作learn,suggest,explain,agree,wonder,prove,mean,state,feel,hold等动词的宾语时; 当宾语从句较长时; 当主语状语置于主句尾,宾语从句之前时; 当主语谓语动词(包括非谓语动词)与宾语从句之间有插入语时; 当一个动词带有两个或两个以上宾语从句时,此时第一个that可以省略,第二个that不可以省略; 当宾语从句中的主语是this,that或this,that做主语的定语时; 当宾语从句是双宾语中的直接宾语时; 当宾语从句的主语是非谓语动词或主语从句时; 当主语中的谓语动词是固定词组时; 当宾语从句有it做其先行词时; 在直接引语中,转述分句把宾语从句隔开时. 
 
7.宾语从句的否定转移 主句的谓语动词是think,believe,imagine,suppose,consider,espect,fancy,guess等,并且主句的主语是第一人称而且为一般现在时,从句的否定词一般要转移到主句上来,其反义疑问句一般与宾语从句一致. I don’t think he will come to my party.而不能说成I think he won’t come to my party. 我认为他不会来我的舞会. I don’t believe that man is killed by Jim,is he? 我认为那个人不是Jim所杀的,是不是? 如果宾语从句中有某个含有否定意义的形容词或副词,其反义疑问句要用肯定形式. We find that he never listens to the teacher carefully,does he? 我们发现他从来不仔细听老师讲课,是不是?
 
8.宾语从句的时态和语序 当主句为现在时或将来时的时候,宾语从句的时态一般不受主句的时态所影响. 当主句为过去时的时候
 
①从句用一般过去时或过去进行时表示与主句谓语动词动作同时发生 I only knew he was studying in a western country,but I didn’t know what country he was in. 我只知道他当时在西方的一个国家读书,可不知道是哪个国家. He asked me if I was reading the story The Old Man and the Sea when he was in. 他问我他进来的时候我是否正在读<老人与海>.
 
②从句过去完成时表示该动作发生在主句谓语动作之前 He told me that he had told Mary about the meeting already. 他告诉我他已经把有关会议的事情告诉的了Mary. 
 
③从句谓语用过去将来时表示该动作发生在主句谓语动作之后 The reporter asked if the government would take necessary measures to put down the to-do. 记者问政府是否会采取必要的措施镇压骚乱. 如果从句是一个客观真理,那么从句的时候不根据主句的时态而变化 The teacher said that the moon goes around the earth yesterday. 老师昨天说月亮绕着地球转. 当宾语从句的引导词是who,which,what,when,where,how,why等表疑问时,不能按正常语序安排,经常将这类引导词置于句首 Who do you think the public might choose as their favorite singer this year? 你认为今年公众会选谁为他们最喜欢的歌手.
 

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